This article identifies and discusses key issues and topics around the process of making math accessible for students with a variety of print disabilities.

Instructors and curriculum developers face a set of unique problems when it comes to teaching math to students with varying print disabilities (e.g. blind, vision impairments, dyslexia, etc.). The concept of creating materials that are 'accessible' is one that is widely discussed and researched, but remains relatively undefined by many scholars. Accessibility, broadly defined as "easy to approach, reach, enter, speak with, or use" (Dictionary.com), is often ill defined when it comes to accessible reading materials for students with print disabilities. As a result, it is more often discussed in terms of what the specific issues are, how this can be achieved and in what context it is appropriate to create accessible texts for this particular population of learners.

According to Stoeger, Batusic, Miesenberger, and Haindl (2006) there are four main problems this population of students face when learning mathematics: "1) Access to mathematical literature (books, teaching materials, papers etc.), 2) Preparation of mathematical information (presenting school exercises, writing papers, etc.), 3) Navigation in mathematical expressions, 4) Actually doing Mathematics (carrying out calculations and computations at all levels, doing formal manipulation, solving exercises.)". (pg.1)

For students to be able to overcome these problems, they need to be able to read and manipulate mathematical information in ways that are accessible. Therefore there is a need to translate instructional materials (e.g. instructional text, equations, graphs, etc.) into alternative formats such as audio files, text-to-speech, braille, and/or tactile images, where it is easier for these populations to access and understand the information. The paper Mathematics and accessibility: A survey, written by Karshmer, A., Gupta, G., and Pontelli, E. (2007) provides a good general overview of this topic and the issues related to it.

A variety of technologies and standards have been developed to help make this process easier and more consistent to produce. The NIMAS standard, the DAISY format, the Nemeth code, (Nemeth, 2011; Leas, 2008) and MathML (Miner, 2005), were developed to assist in the translation of mathematical equations into alternative formats. In addition, software products created to assist in the creation or display of accessible math are programs such as MathTalk (Stevens & Edwards, 2007), a system for speaking mathematical equations using speech recognition technology; AudioMath (Ferreira & Freitas, 2005), that uses MathML for speaking mathematics; MathPlayer (Soiffer, 2007), an Internet Explorer plug-in that displays MathML in webpages; Math2Braille (Crombie, Lenoir, McKenzie, & Barker, 2004), which converts MathML to braille; and the ghPLAYER (Isaacson, Srinivasan, & Lloyd, 2010; Isaacson, Schleppenbach, & Lloyd, 2010) that follows a set of rules for reading DAISY and other ebooks files (epub, etc.) files aloud. Mathematical expressions are often spoken in ambiguous forms. MathSpeak is a set of rules for speaking mathematical expressions non-ambiguously. The gh player, now known as readHear, is capable of speaking mathematical expressions non-ambiguously with the MathSpeak rules and is being distributed for free by LearningAlly.

Digital Textbooks and other digital forms of digital reading materials for learning math have emerged as a way of providing digital information in an accessible format. In general, these books provide access to spoken content sometimes with navigation available with voice command. Different from scans (PDFs) of print materials, digital books "can separately represent content and style and can logically structure contents with its searching, linking, and document-styling functions" (Kim, 2010). In other words, include multimedia, and in general they provide text to audio, but some also incorporate image and mathematical expressions to audio as well. These books generally use MathML and the various software components that are able to translate MathML into spoken speech, and there is currently research being done on the use of these books in the classroom.

Another aspect of creating accessible text, especially within mathematics, is the application of images that are supported and/or annotated in ways make them accessible for students who are blind or visually impaired. For example, by providing a verbal description for critical images such as graphs and charts, users who would be otherwise be unable, would have access to information provided by the images. There are several different approaches to creating accessible images such as, using software (MathTrax) to automatically produce image descriptions (Moskovitch, & Walker, 2010), creating tactile representations of graphs (Jayant, 2006), or creating a sonified version of the graph or image (Ramloll, Yu, Brewster, Riedel, Burton, & Dimigen, 2000).

Lewis, S., Noble, S., and Soiffer, N. (2010) summarize:

"Over the last decade, the provision of accessible textbooks has seen a shift from “books on tape” to electronic texts for use with a computer as one of the most effective techniques for providing access to textbook content. This has generally not been true for higher level mathematics content, however, but the advent of Mathematical Markup Language (MathML), and the accessibility protocols to support it, has now made this possible. Now that this capability has been firmly established, the opportunity to study the effectiveness of computer support for reading math is available." (pg. 139)

The references listed below provide a selection of the published literature on the question of accessibility in mathematics.

We welcome comments, additions, suggestions and feedback on this brief overview. You can add a comment using the fields at the bottom of this page, or write to Mindy Frisbee at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

References Cited

- Bouck, E. C., Flanagan, S., & Kulkarni, G. (2011). Speaking math: A voice input, speech output calculator for students with visual impairments. Journal of Special Education Technology, 26(4).
- Crombie, D., Lenoir, R., McKenzie, N., & Barker, A. (2004). math2braille: Opening access to mathematics. In K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, W. L. Zagler, & D. Burger (Eds.), Computers Helping People with Special Needs (Vol. 3118, pp. 670-677). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
- Ferreira, H. F., & Freitas, D. (2005). AudioMath-using MathML for speaking mathematics. Presented at the XML : Aplicacoes e Tecnologias Associadas, Braga, Portugal.
- Isaacson, M., Schleppenbach, D., & Lloyd, L. L. (2010). Increasing STEM accessability in students with print disabilities through MathSpeak.
*Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities*,*14*(1), 1–15. - Isaacson, M. D., Srinivasan, S., & Lloyd, L. L. (2010). Development of an algorithm for improving quality and information processing capacity of MathSpeak synthetic speech renderings. Disability & Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 5(2), 83-93. doi:10.3109/17483100903387226
- Jayant, C. (2006).
*A survey of math accessibility for blind persons and an investigation on text/math separation*. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. - Kim, M., Yoo, K.-H., Park, C., Yoo, J.-S., Byun, H., Cho, W., Ryu, J., et al. (2010). An XML-based digital textbook and its educational effectiveness. In T. Kim & H. Adeli (Eds.), Advances in computer science and information technology, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol. 6059, pp. 509-523). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
- Leas, D., Persoon, E., Soiffer, N., & Zacherle, M. (2008). Daisy 3: A standard for accessible multimedia books. IEEE Multimedia, 15(4), 28–37. doi:10.1109/MMUL.2008.84
- Lewis, P., Noble, S., & Soiffer, N. (2010). Using accessible math textbooks with students who have learning disabilities. Proceedings of the 12th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on Computers and accessibility (pp. 139–146).
- Miner, R. (2005). The importance of MathML to mathematics communication. Notices of the AMS, 52(5), 532–538.
- Moskovitch, Y., & Walker, B. N. (2010). Evaluating text descriptions of mathematical graphs. Proceedings of the 12th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on computers and accessibility (p. 259). New York, NY: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/1878803.1878860
- Nemeth, A. (2011). MathSpeak. Retrieved from http://people.rit.edu/easi/easisem/talkmath.htm
- Ramloll, R., Yu, W., Brewster, S., Riedel, B., Burton, M., & Dimigen, G. (2000). Constructing sonified haptic line graphs for the blind student: first steps.
*Proceedings of the fourth international ACM conference on Assistive technologies*(pp. 17–25). - Soiffer, N. (2007). MathPlayer v2.1: Web-based math accessibility. Proceedings of the 9th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on computers and accessibility (pp. 257–258). doi:10.1145/1296843.1296900
- Stevens, R., & Edwards, A. (2007). Controlling the flow of information in spoken algebra to make listening reading active. Heslington, York, UK: The University of York.
- Stoeger, B., Batusic, M., Miesenberger, K., & Haindl, P. (2006). Supporting blind students in navigation and manipulation of mathematical expressions: Basic requirements and strategies. Computers Helping People with Special Needs (Vol. 4061, pp. 1235–1242). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

ALL REFERENCES

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Review Papers

Archambault, D., Fitzpatrick, D., Gupta, G., Karshmer, A., Miesenberger, K., & Pontelli, E. (2004). Towards a universal maths conversion library. *Computers Helping People with Special Needs* (Vol. 3118, p. 625–625). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Archambault, Dominique. (n.d.). *Non visual access to mathematical contents: State of the art and prospective*. Paris, France: Université Pierre et Marie Curie. Retrieved from http://users.polytech.unice.fr

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Bernareggi, C., & Archambault, D. (2007). Mathematics on the web: Emerging opportunities for visually impaired people. *Proceedings of the 2007 international cross-disciplinary conference on Web accessibility (W4A)* (pp. 108–111). doi:10.1145/1243441.1243466

Caprotti, O., & Carlisle, D. (1999). OpenMath and MathML: Semantic markup for mathematics. *Crossroads*, *6*(2), 11–14. doi:10.1145/333104.333110

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Ferreira, H. F. (2011, January). *AudioMath: Speaking mathematics with MathML*. Presented at the Second European Workshop on MathML & Scientific e-Contents, Kuopio, Finland.

Ferreira, H. F., & Freitas, D. (2005). AudioMath-using MathML for speaking mathematics. Presented at the XML : Aplicacoes e Tecnologias Associadas, Braga, Portugal.

Ferrell, K. A. (2006). Evidence-based practices for students with visual disabilities. *Communication Disorders Quarterly*, *28*(1), 42–48. doi:10.1177/15257401060280010701

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Stephan, F., & Miesenberger, K. (2008). Chemical workbench for blind people – accessing the structure of chemical formula. In K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, W. Zagler, & A. Karshmer (Eds.), *Computers Helping People with Special Needs*. (Vol. 5105, pp. 953–960). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/978-3-540-70540-6_143

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Implementation Papers

Carnine, D. (1997). Instructional design in mathematics for students with learning disabilities. *Journal of Learning Disabilities*, *30*(2), 130–141.

Chieu, V. M., & Herbst, P. (2010). Designing an intelligent teaching simulator for learning to teach by practicing. *ZDM*, *43*(1), 105–117. doi:10.1007/s11858-010-0291-4

Cooper, M., Lowe, T., & Taylor, M. (2008). Access to mathematics in web resources for people with a visual impairment. In K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, W. Zagler, & A. Karshmer (Eds.), *Computers Helping People with Special Needs*. (Vol. 5105, pp. 926–933). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/978-3-540-70540-6_139

Cronk, S., Ferguson, R., & Patterson, C. (2006). Tools for accessible math instruction for blind students. *Proceedings of the 2006 ASEE Gulf-Southwest Annual Conference* (pp. 1–5). Southern University and A & M College.

Ferre, H., & Frei, D. (2004). Enhancing the accessibility of mathematics for blind people: The AudioMath project. In K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, W. L. Zagler, & D. Burger (Eds.), *Computers Helping People with Special Needs*, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol. 3118). Paris, France: Springer.

Francioni, J. M., & Smith, A. C. (2002). Computer science accessibility for students with visual disabilities. *ACM SIGCSE Bulletin*, *34*, 91–95. doi:10.1145/563517.563372

Gersten, R., & Clarke, B. S. (2007). *Effective strategies for teaching students with difficulties in mathematics*. Reston, VA: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Isaacson, M. D., Lloyd, L. L., & Schleppenbach, D. (2007). Reducing multiple interpretations of mathematical expressions with MathSpeak. Presented at the First international conference on technology-based learning with disability. Retrieved from http://www.wright.edu/lwd/LWD-07Highlights.html

Isaacson, M., Schleppenbach, D., & Lloyd, L. L. (2010). Increasing STEM accessibility in students with print disabilities through MathSpeak. *Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities*, *14*(1), 1–15.

Jitendra, A. (2002). Teaching students math problem-solving through graphic representations. *TEACHING Exceptional Children*, *34*(4), 34–38.

Kohanová, I. (2008). *The ways of teaching mathematics to visually impaired students* (pp. 1–14). Bratislava, Slovakia: Comenius University.

Nuttayasakul, N. (2003, May). *MathML without plugins using VML* (Masters of Science). San Jose State University, San Jose, California.

Witzel, B., Smith, S. W., & Brownell, M. T. (2001). How can I help students with learning disabilities in algebra? *Intervention in School and Clinic*, *37*(2), 101–104.

Software Papers

Alonso, F., Fuertes, J. L., González, Á. L., & Martínez, L. A. (2006). SBT: A translator from Spanish mathematical braille to MathML. In K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, W. L. Zagler, & A. I. Karshmer (Eds.), *Computers Helping People with Special Needs* (Vol. 4061, pp. 1207–1214). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/tp05816426761007/

Archambault, D., & Moço, V. (2006). Canonical MathML to simplify conversion of MathML to braille mathematical notations. In K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, W. L. Zagler, & A. I. Karshmer (Eds.), *Computers Helping People with Special Needs* (Vol. 4061, pp. 1191–1198). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/11788713_172

Archambault, D., Stöger, B., Batusic, M., Fahrengruber, C., & Miesenberger, K. (2007). A software model to support collaborative mathematical work between Braille and sighted users. *Proceedings of the 9th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on computers and accessibility*, Assets ’07 (pp. 115–122). Tempe, Arizona, USA: ACM. doi:10.1145/1296843.1296864

Awde, A., Hina, M. D., Tadj, C., Bellik, Y., & Ramdane-Cherif, A. (2008). Middleware for ubiquitous access to mathematical expressions for visually-impaired users. *Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal*, *3*(5), 1–14.

Crombie, D., Lenoir, R., McKenzie, N., & Barker, A. (2004). math2braille: Opening access to mathematics. In K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, W. L. Zagler, & D. Burger (Eds.), *Computers Helping People with Special Needs* (Vol. 3118, pp. 670–677). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/m8dympwlgtwl7kjg/

Delgado, A. M. (2007). *The effects of multimedia technology on the learning of math story problems of elementary and middle school deaf students* (Master’s thesis). Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas.

Edwards, A. D. N., Stevens, R. D., & Pitt, I. J. (1994). *Non-visual representation of mathematical information*. York, UK: University of York. Retrieved from http://130.203.133.150/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.48.9174

Foulds, R., & Camacho, C. (2003). Text summarization contributions to universal access. *Technology and Disability*, *15*(4), 223–239.

Gardner, J. A. (2002). Access by blind students and professionals to mainstream math and science. In K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, & W. Zagler (Eds.), *Computers Helping People with Special Needs* (Vol. 2398, pp. 502–507). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/3-540-45491-8_94

Gardner, J. A., Ungier, L., & Boyer, J. J. (2006). Braille math made easy with the Tiger formatter. In K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, W. L. Zagler, & A. I. Karshmer (Eds.), *Computers Helping People with Special Needs*, (Vol. 4061, pp. 1215–1222). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/11788713_175

Hewlett, M. G., & Burnett, A. N. (2006). Text-to-Speech software and webCT: Issues of compatibility. Retrieved from web.unbc.ca/wccce05/Text-to-Speech_Software.doc

Landau, S., & Gourgey, K. (2001). Development of a talking tactile tablet. *Information Technology and Disabilities*, *7*(2), 4.

MacArthur, C., & Haynes, J. B. (1995). Student assistant for learning from text (SALT): A hypermedia reading aid. *Journal of Learning Disabilities*, *28*(3), 150–159.

Maffei, L. (2006). A Remedial Intervention in Algebra. *Proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of mathematics Education* (Vol. 4). Prague, Czech Republic.

Moskovitch, Y., & Walker, B. N. (2010). Evaluating text descriptions of mathematical graphs. *Proceedings of the 12th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on computers and accessibility* (p. 259). New York, NY: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/1878803.1878860

Rasmussen, L. G. (2003, June 13). MathSpeak is bringing spoken math to your web from Lloyd G. Rasmussen.

Sánchez, J., & Sáenz, M. (2005). *Developing mathematics skills through audio interfaces*, ( No. 1030158). Chilean National Fund of Science and Technology. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=10449592706431428618related:CqhbwjNpBJEJ

Schleppenbach, D., & Nemeth, A. (2004). Digital Talking Books for Math and Science. Presented at the Technology And Persons With Disabilities Conference.

Soiffer, N. (2005). MathPlayer: web-based math accessibility. *Proceedings of the 7th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on computers and accessibility* (pp. 204–205). doi:10.1.1.83.558

Soiffer, N. (2007). MathPlayer v2.1: Web-based math accessibility. *Proceedings of the 9th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on computers and accessibility* (pp. 257–258). doi:10.1145/1296843.1296900

Stanley, P. B., & Karshmer, A. I. (2006). *Translating MathML into Nemeth Braille code*. University of South Florida.

Stevens, R., & Edwards, A. (2007). *Controlling the flow of information in spoken algebra to make listening reading active*. Heslington, York, UK: The University of York. Retrieved from http://en.scientificcommons.org/42893333

Stoeger, B., Batusic, M., Miesenberger, K., & Haindl, P. (2006). Supporting blind students in navigation and manipulation of mathematical expressions: Basic requirements and strategies. *Computers Helping People with Special Needs* (Vol. 4061, pp. 1235–1242). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Stöger, B., Miesenberger, K., & Batušić, M. (2004). Mathematical working environment for the blind motivation and basic ideas. In K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, W. L. Zagler, & D. Burger (Eds.), *Computers Helping People with Special Needs*. (Vol. 3118, pp. 656–663). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/978-3-540-27817-7_98

Wigmore, A., Hunter, G., Pflügel, E., & Denholm-Price, J. (2009). *TalkMaths: A speech user interface for dictating mathematical expressions into electronic documents*. Presented at the 2nd ISCA Workshop of Speech and Language Technology in Education (SLaTE 2009), International Speech Communication Association (ISCA).

Yamaguchi, K., Komada, T., Kawane, F., & Suzuki, M. (2008). New features in math accessibility with Infty software. In K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, W. Zagler, & A. Karshmer (Eds.), *Computers Helping People with Special Needs* (Vol. 5105, pp. 892–899). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/k383w68472173851/

Discussion Papers

Bartolini Bussi, M. G. (2007). Semiotic mediation: fragments from a classroom experiment on the coordination of spatial perspectives. *ZDM*, *39*(1-2), 63–71. doi:10.1007/s11858-006-0007-y

Bates, E., & Fitzpatrick, D. (2010). Spoken mathematics using prosody, earcons and spearcons. In K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, W. Zagler, & A. Karshmer (Eds.), *Computers Helping People with Special Needs* (Vol. 6180, pp. 407–414). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/kl52q87623218x05/

Burgstahler, S. (1994). Increasing the representation of people with disabilities in science, engineering, and mathematics. *Information Technology and Disability*, *1*(4). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=9065421586261014830related:Lvk-7ObYzn0J

Carlisle, D. (2000). OpenMath, MathML, and XSL. *ACM SIGSAM Bulletin*, *34*(2), 6–11. doi:10.1145/362001.362011

Carnine, D. (1997). Instructional design in mathematics for students with learning disabilities. *Journal of Learning Disabilities*, *30*(2), 130–141.

Cochran, J., & Sullivan, S. (2011). *Electronic accessibility in education and performance-centered design*. George Mason University.

Durre, I. (2010). *Success for blind students in mathematics and science: The importance of thinking outside the box*. Presented at the Seventh International Conference on Higher Education and Disability, Innsbruck, Austria.

Gardner, J., & Kelly, R. (2009). The future is near: Universally usable mainstream on-line publishing. *Information Services & Use*, *29*, 97–98. doi:10.3233/ISU-2009-0601

Gersten, R., & Clarke, B. S. (2007). *Effective strategies for teaching students with difficulties in mathematics*. Reston, VA: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Hasselbring, T. S., Lott, A. C., & Zydney, J. M. (2005). *Technology-supported math instruction for students with disabilities: Two decades of research and development*. Washington, DC: Center for Implementing Technology in Education.

Herbst, P., & Chazan, D. (2011). On creating and using representations of mathematics teaching in research and teacher development. *ZDM*, *43*(1), 1–5. doi:10.1007/s11858-011-0306-9

Introduction: Barriers to achievement in mathematics. (n.d.). Retrieved December 6, 2011, from http://s22318.tsbvi.edu/mathproject/intro.asp#main

Isaacson, M. D., Srinivasan, S., & Lloyd, L. L. (2009). Ambiguity and inconsistencies in mathematics spoken by middle and high school teachers: Educational implications. Presented at the Independent Laboratory Access for the Blind Symposium, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

Jayant, C. (2006). *A survey of math accessibility for blind persons and an investigation on text/math separation*. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. Retrieved from http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/cjayant/papers/MathAccessFinal.pdf

Karshmer, A. I., Pontelli, E., & Gupta, G. (1999). Helping visually impaired students in the study of mathematics. *Proceedings of the 29th annual frontiers in education conference* (Vol. 2, pp. 12C4/5–12C410). San Juan, Puerto Rico: IEEE. doi:10.1109/FIE.1999.841638

Kouroupetroglou, G., & Kacorri, H. (2010). Deriving accessible science books for the blind students of physics. In A. Angelopoulos & T. Fildisis (Eds.), *7th International Conference of the Balkan Physical Union*, AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1203). American Institute of Physics. Retrieved from http://proceedings.aip.org/about/rights_permissions

Leas, D., Persoon, E., Soiffer, N., & Zacherle, M. (2008). Daisy 3: A standard for accessible multimedia books. *IEEE Multimedia*, *15*(4), 28–37. doi:10.1109/MMUL.2008.84

Miller, S. P., & Mercer, C. D. (1997). Educational aspects of mathematical disabilities. *Journal of Learning Disabilities*, *30*(1), 47–56.

Miner, R. (2005). The importance of MathML to mathematics communication. *Notices of the AMS*, *52*(5), 532–538.

Monaghan, J. (2007). Computer algebra, instrumentation and the anthropological approach. *International Journal for Technology in Mathematics Education*, *14*(2), 63–72.

New math-to-speech technologies to help blind and visually impaired students master mathematics. (2011, May 24).* Design Science*. Retrieved from http://www.dessci.com/en/company/press/releases/110524.htm

Noble, S. (2005). How people process auditory information.

Padovani, L. (n.d.). *MathML formatting (with TEX rules and TEX fonts)*.

Peli, E., Fine, E. M., & Labianca, A. T. (1996). Evaluating visual information provided by audio description. *Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness*, *90*, 378–385. doi:10.1.1.158.540

Preddy, M., Gardner, J., & Sahyun, S. (1997). *DOTSPLUS: How to make tactile figures and tactile formatted math*. Presented at the CSUN International Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities, Los Angeles, CA. Retrieved from http://www.dinf.ne.jp/doc/english/Us_Eu/conf/csun_97/csun97_096.html

Rose, D., & Dalton, B. (2007, January 9). Plato revisited: Learning through listening in the digital world.

Sahyun, S., Bulatov, V., Gardner, J. A., & Preddy, M. (1998). *DOTSPLUS: A how-to demonstration for making tactile figures and tactile formatted math using the tactile graphics embosser*. Presented at the CSUN International Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities, Los Angeles, CA. Retrieved from http://www.dinf.ne.jp/doc/english/Us_Eu/conf/csun_98/csun98_103.html

Santagata, R., & Guarino, J. (2010). Using video to teach future teachers to learn from teaching. *ZDM*, *43*(1), 133–145. doi:10.1007/s11858-010-0292-3

Soiffer, N. (2004). Accessible mathematics made easy. Presented at the Technology and Persons with Disabilities Conference, California State University, Northridge. Retrieved from http://www.csun.edu/cod/conf/2004/proceedings/177.htm

Soiffer, N. (2005). Advances in accessible web-based mathematics. Presented at the Technology and Persons with Disabilities Conference, California State University, Northridge. Retrieved from http://www.csun.edu/cod/conf/2005/proceedings/2407.htm

Stanley, P. (2008). Assessing the mathematics related communication requirements of the blind in education and career. In K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, W. Zagler, & A. Karshmer (Eds.), *Computers Helping People with Special Needs* (Vol. 5105, pp. 888–891). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/978-3-540-70540-6_133

Strangman, N., & Hall, T. (2005). *Text transformations: Curriculum enhancement*. National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum.

Swanson, H. L. (1999). Instructional components that predict treatment outcomes for students with learning disabilities: Support for a combined strategy and direct instruction model. *Learning Disabilities Research & Practice*, *14*(3), 129–140.

Tawis on pin-matrix device. (2008). Retrieved December 6, 2011, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&feature=endscreen&v=z0fktwCPjjc

Witzel, B., Smith, S. W., & Brownell, M. T. (2001). How can I help students with learning disabilities in algebra? *Intervention in School and Clinic*, *37*(2), 101–104.