University of Oregon

Text-to-Speech in Mathematics


We welcome comments on this topic and most especially, additions to this list:

Initial References (Development of TTS):

Ferres, L., Verkhogliad, P., Lindgaard, G., Boucher, L., Chretien, A., & Lachance, M. (2007). Improving accessibility to statistical graphs: the iGraph-Lite system. In Proceedings of the 9th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility (pp. 67–74).

Ferres, L., Parush, A., Roberts, S., & Lindgaard, G. (2006). Helping People with Visual Impairments Gain Access to Graphical Information Through Natural Language: The Igraph System. Computers Helping People with Special Needs, 1122–1130.

Ferres, L., Parush, A., Li, Z., Oppacher, Y., & Lindgaard, G. (2006). Representing and Querying Line Graphs in Natural Language: The iGraph System. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4073, 248–253.

Gould, B., O’Connell, T., & Freed, G. (2008). Effective Practices for Description of Science Content within Digital Talking Books. Retrieved March 6, 2012, from

Includes specific instructions for how to describe STEM images, bar charts, line graphs, Venn diagrams, scatter plots, tables, pie charts, flow charts, standard diagram or illustration, complex diagram or illustration, and math equations.

Isaacson, M., Schleppenbach, D., & Lloyd, L. L. (2010). Increasing STEM accessibility in students with print disabilities through MathSpeak. Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities, 14(1), 1–15.

Measured Progress/ETS Collaborative. (2012). Mathematics audio guidelines. Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium. Retrieved from

Schleppenbach, D., & Nemeth, A. (2004). Digital talking books for math and science. Presented at the Technology And Persons With Disabilities Conference.

Siegrist, K. (2007). Expository Mathematics in the Digital Age. Journal of Online Mathematics and its Applications. Retrieved from

Stevens, R. D., Edwards, A. D. N., & Harling, P. A. (1997). Access to mathematics for visually disabled students through multimodal interaction. Human-Computer Interaction, 12, 47–92. doi:10.1207/s15327051hci1201&2_z

Stevens, R. D. (1996). Principle for the design of auditory interfaces to present complex information to blind people (Doctoral Dissertation). University of York, York, England.

Stevens, R. D., Brewster, S. A., Wright, P. C., & Edwards, A. D. N. (1994). Design and evaluation of an auditory glance at algebra for blind readers. In Auditor Display: The Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Auditory Display, (pp. 21–30). Addison-Wesley. Retrieved from

Initial References (Usage of TTS):

Hansen, E. G., Shute, V. J., & Landau, S. (2010). An assessment-for-learning system in mathematics for individuals with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 104(5), 275–286.

Power, C., & Jürgensen, H. (2009). Accessible Presentation of Information for People with Visual Disabilities. Universal Access in the Information Society, 9(2), 97–119. doi:10.1007/s10209-009-0164-1

St. John, E. A. (2008, December). Three case-studies of the use of an audio support system embedded in a computer-based cognitive tutoring system and its effects on the math word problem solving performance of struggling readers (Doctoral dissertation). University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh.

Beal, C., & Shaw, E. (2008). Working memory and math problem solving by blind middle and high school students: Implications for universal access. In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education, Las Vegas, March 2008, (Vol. 19, p. 6). Presented at the International Conference of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education, Las Vegas, Nevada.

Ferrell, K. A. (2006). Evidence-based practices for students with visual disabilities. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 28(1), 42–48. doi:10.1177/15257401060280010701